The topic of this article will revolve around the IGF-1 DES peptide and the extensive carcinogenic cell research it has been a part of. If this topic sparks your curiosity, keep reading. Let’s dive right in!
Studies suggest IGF-1, or insulin-like growth factor-1, is a peptide hormone produced naturally in the body that may have a role in various processes. [i] Besides the naturally occurring forms of IGF-1, there are also intentionally generated types with the same or even greater research potential. One such IGF-1 counterpart is IGF-1 DES. IGF-1 DES was created to be structurally similar to IGF-1, except for the N-terminal three amino acids.
Due to the lack of the tripeptide Gly-Pro-Glu, researchers believe that IGF-1 DES may be 10 times more effective than the stimulation provided by IGF-1. Researchers hypothesize that increased proliferation and differentiation of tissue cells [ii] may come from the inability of IGF-1 DES, which lacks the tripeptide, to connect with the IGF-1 binding receptors.
IGF-1 DES Peptide Overview
Research [iii] suggests IGF-1 DES may trigger CA1 fEPSPs (Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential) in a few distinct ways. Different ion channels may open due to the influx of positively charged ions into the cell (responsible for the excitatory postsynaptic potential). In experiments when IGF-1 DES was given for 15 minutes, the slope of CA1 fEPSPs appeared to increase by 40%, indicating that the peptide may exert its effect by acting on and activating ion channels.
It has been hypothesized that IGF-1 DES, mostly through the PI3K pathway, may stimulate excitatory synaptic transmission. In experiment 5, IGF-1 DES was presented to brain cells with either tyrosine inhibitor or PI3K inhibitor chemicals to investigate the possibility of excitatory transmission in the CA1 area. Tyrosine kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) are both regarded as enzymes in the scientific world because of their roles in cell development, differentiation, and proliferation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors were not found to affect the operation of the IGF-1 DES, as suggested by the study’s authors. In contrast, PI3K inhibitor substances were suggested to blunt the fEPSP slope significantly.
IGF-1 DES Peptide Research and Clinical Investigations
IGF-1 DES Peptide and Neurological Function
Mice with SHANK3 knocked out were given IGF-1 and its analogs for two weeks in research [iv]. Researchers speculated that after two weeks of daily peptide presentation, some ‘unwanted’ functions, such as motor signaling and performance impairments, appeared to be reversed due to a SHANK3 deficiency.
IGF-1 and its analogs were given to a mouse model of Rett Syndrome [iv]. It suggested that IGF-1 analogs may have improved synapse development and reduced phenotypic deficiencies. Both studies’ researchers suggested that IGF-1 and its analogs could slow the onset and course of neurological decline.
IGF1 DES Peptide and Mice Models of Autism
Rarely seen in the general population, autism spectrum disorder [v] is a hereditary illness linked to stunted mental growth. Pathological similarities have been found between this disorder and tuberous sclerosis [vi], leading researchers to conclude that synaptic development defects are likely to blame.
IGF-II and its analogs, including IGF-1 DES, were tested in research [vii] on autistic mice models. Researchers hypothesized that the peptide may have increased social contact and decreased obsessive behavior after five days. The mice also speculated remarkable enhancements in their cognitive abilities.
IGF-1 DES Peptide and Cognition
The peptide hormone IGF-1 has been linked to growth and development in animal studies [viii]. Short peptide isoforms not produced in the liver have been proposed as powerful neuroprotective medicines whose mechanism does not rely primarily on the IGF-1 receptors, even though most peptides originate there. Studies suggest some of these shorter isoforms, like IGF-1 DES, may be stable and penetrate the blood-brain barrier relatively easily.
Young rats’ hippocampus brain cells were studied [ix] to determine the potential effect of the IGF-1 DES peptide on the region’s excitatory synapses. Findings suggested excitatory synaptic responses mediated predominantly by AMPA receptors were speculated to have increased by 40% in response to IGF-1 DES, suggesting that this may improve cognitive performance. This theory needs to be tested further.
IGF-1 DES Peptide and Carcinogenic Cells
Researchers hypothesize that one of the fundamental problems with cancer cells is that they are either undifferentiated or in the very early phases of cell differentiation, making them difficult to separate and eradicate. Studies [x] have suggested that nanomolar concentrations of IGF-1 DES may induce a specific phenotype in cancer-causing HT29-D4 cells. Similarly, the HT29-D4 cells may experience a modest suppression of cell growth if IGF-1 DES is given to them at an early point. Based on these findings, the authors of this study hypothesized that IGF-1 DES might differentiate colon carcinoma HT29-D4 cells.
More study is needed to understand its potential applications in science fully. You can buy IGF-1 DES online is restricted to usage in research and educational institutes. Remember that none of the substances discussed here are approved for ingestion by humans or animals. Compounds used in scientific research should never be used outside of a laboratory. It is forbidden to make a personal introduction of any type. Sales are restricted to verified professionals and active scientists only. This article’s information is meant only for educational purposes.
[i] Anderson, Lindsey J et al. “Use of growth hormone, IGF-I, and insulin for anabolic purpose: Pharmacological basis, methods of detection, and adverse effects.” Molecular and cellular endocrinology vol. 464 (2018): 65-74. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.06.010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5723243/
[ii] Ballard FJ, Wallace JC, Francis GL, Read LC, Tomas FM. Des(1-3)IGF-I: a truncated form of insulin-like growth factor-I. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1996 Oct;28(10):1085-7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8930132/
[iii] Melinda M. Ramsey et al, Functional Characterization of Des-IGF-1 Action at Excitatory Synapses in the CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampus, 01 Jul 2005. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/jn.00768.2004
[iv] Canitano, Roberto. “New experimental treatments for core social domain in autism spectrum disorders.” Frontiers in pediatrics vol. 2 61. 20 Jun. 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064155/
[v] Autism Spectrum Disorder. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20352928
[vi] Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Sahin M. Autism and the synapse: emerging mechanisms and mechanism-based therapies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2015 Apr;28(2):91-102. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25695134/
[vii] Adam B. Steinmetz et al, Insulin-Like Growth Factor II Targets the mTOR Pathway to Reverse Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice. Journal of Neuroscience. 24 January 2018. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2010-17.2017
[viii] Górecki DC, Beresewicz M, Zabłocka B. Neuroprotective effects of short peptides derived from the Insulin-like growth factor 1. Neurochem Int. 2007 Dec;51(8):451-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17582656/
[ix] Ramsey MM, Adams MM, Ariwodola OJ, Sonntag WE, Weiner JL. Functional characterization of des-IGF-1 action at excitatory synapses in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jul;94(1):247-54. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15985695/
[x] Remacle-Bonnet M, Garrouste F, el Atiq F, Roccabianca M, Marvaldi J, Pommier G. des-(1-3)-IGF-I, an insulin-like growth factor analog used to mimic a potential IGF-II autocrine loop, promotes the differentiation of human colon-carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 1992 Dec 2;52(6):910-7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1281142/